All new features of java 8

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Look at the below list to know the all new features of java 8

A)Change in Language:

1.Lambda Expressions|Functional Programming
Lambda expressions provide anonymous function types to Java
– Replace use of anonymous inner classes
– Provide more functional style of programming in Java

2.Extension Methods|Bringing Multiple Inheritance (of Functionality) to Java
Provide a mechanism to add new methods to existing interfaces
– Without breaking backwards compatability
– Gives Java multiple inheritance of behaviour, as well as types (but not state!)

3.Static Methods In Interfaces
Previously it was not possible to include static methods in an interface
Static methods, by definition, are not abstract
– @FunctionalInterface can have zero or more static methods

4.Functional Interface
Single Abstract Method (SAM) type
A functional interface is an interface that has one abstract method
– Represents a single function contract
– Doesn’t mean it only has one method
@FunctionalInterface annotation
– Helps ensure the functional interface contract is honoured
– Compiler error if not a SAM

5.Method References
Method references let us reuse a method as a lambda expression
FileFilter x = File f -> f.canRead();
FileFilter x = File::canRead;

6.Constructor References
Same concept as a method reference
– For the constructor
Factory<List> f = ArrayList::new;
Factory<List> f = () -> return new ArrayList();

7.Annotations On Java Types
Annotations can currently only be used on type declarations
– Classes, methods, variable definitions
Extension for places where types are used
– e.g. parameters
Permits error detection by pluggable type checkers
– e.g. null pointer errors, race conditions, etc
public void process(@notnull List data) {…}

8.Generalised Target-Type Inference|Improved usability of generics

9.Access To Parameter Names At Runtime
Mechanism to retrieve parameter names of methods and constructors
– At runtime via core reflection
Improved code readability
– Eliminate redundant annotations
Improve IDE capabilities
– Auto-generate template code
Method and Constructor now inherit from new Executable class
– getParameters() returns array of Parameter objects
– Name, type, annotations for each parameter

B)Change in Core Libraries:

1.Enhance Core Libraries With Lambdas
No small task!
– Java SE 7 has 4024 standard classes
Modernise general library APIs
Improve performance
– Gains from use of invokedynamic to implement Lambdas
Demonstrate best practices for extension methods

2.Concurrency Updates
Scalable update variables
– DoubleAccumulator, DoubleAdder, etc
– Multiple variables avoid update contention
– Good for frequent updates, infrequent reads
ConcurrentHashMap updates
– Improved scanning support, key computation
ForkJoinPool improvements
– Completion based design for IO bound applications
– Thread that is blocked hands work to thread that is running

3.Bulk Data Operations For Collections|Filter, Map, Reduce for Java
java.util.stream package
– Stream, Collector interfaces
Serial and parallel implementations
– Generally expressed with Lambda statements
Parallel implementation builds on Fork-Join framework
Lazy evaluation
– Things like getFirst() terminate stream

4.Add Stream Sources
From collections and arrays
– Collection.stream()
– Collection.parallelStream()
– Arrays.stream(T array) or Stream.of()
Static factories
– IntStream.range()
– Files.walk()
Roll your own
– java.util.Spliterator()

5.java.util.function Package
Predicate<T>
– Determine if the input of type T matches some criteria
Consumer<T>
– Accept a single input argumentof type T, and return no result
Function<T, R>
– Apply a function to the input type T, generating a result of type R
Supplier<T>
– A supplier of results
Plus several more type specific versions

6.Optional<T>|Reducing NullPointerException Occurences

Indicates that reference may, or may not have a value
– Makes developer responsible for checking
– A bit like a stream that can only have zero or one elements

7.Parallel Array Sorting
Additional utility methods in java.util.Arrays
– parallelSort (multiple signatures for different primitives)
Anticipated minimum improvement of 30% over sequential sort
– For dual core system with appropriate sized data set
Built on top of the fork-join framework
– Uses Doug Lea’s ParallelArray implementation
– Requires working space the same size as the array being sorted

8.Date And Time APIs
A new date, time, and calendar API for the Java SE platform
Supports standard time concepts
– Partial, duration, period, intervals
– date, time, instant, and time-zone
Provides a limited set of calendar systems and be extensible to others
Uses relevant standards, including ISO-8601, CLDR, and BCP47
Based on an explicit time-scale with a connection to UTC

9.JDBC 4.2|Minor enhancements for usability and portability
Add setter/update methods
– ResultSet, PreparedStatement, and CallableStatement
– Support new data types such as those being defined in JSR 310
REF_CURSOR support for CallableStatement
DatabaseMetaData.getIndexInfo extended
– new columns for CARDINALITY and PAGES which return a long value
New DatabaseMetaData method
– getMaxLogicalLobSize
– Return the logical maximum size for a LOB

10.Base64 Encoding and Decoding
Currently developers are forced to use non-public APIs
– sun.misc.BASE64Encoder
– sun.misc.BASE64Decoder
Java SE 8 now has a standard way
– java.util.Base64.Encoder
– java.util.Base64.Decoder
– encode, encodeToString, decode, wrap methods

11.Others
Charset implementation improvements
– Reduced size of charsets, improved performance of encoding/decoding
Reduced core-library memory usage
– Reduced object size, disable reflection compiler, internal table sizes, etc
Optimize java.text.DecimalFormat.format
– Improve performance, multiply by 100.0 or 1000.0 (2 or 3 DP only)
Statically Linked JNI Libraries
– Needed for embedded applications
– Currently only dynamically linked supported

C)Java Internationalisation(I18N):

1.Locale Data Packing
Tool to generate locale data files
– From LDML format
Unicode Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR) support
Locale elements supported from underlying platform

2.BCP 47 Locale Mapping
Language tags to indicate the language used for an information object
– RFC-5646 (Language range)
– RFC-5456 (Language priority, preference)
Language range Collection<String>
Language priority List <String>
Three operations added to Locale class
– filterBasic
– filterExtended
– lookup

3.Unicode 6.2
Java SE 7 support Unicode 6.0
Changes in Unicode 6.1 (February, 2012)
– Add 11 new blocks to java.lang.Character.UnicodeBlock
– Add 7 new scripts to java.lang.Character.UnicodeScript
– Support over 700 new characters in java.lang.Character, String, and other classes
Changes in Unicode 6.2 (September, 2012)
– Support a new Turkish currency sign (U+20BA)

D)Change in Security:

1.Configurable Secure Random Number Generator
Better implementation of SecureRandom
Currently applications can hang on Linux
– JVM uses /dev/random
– This will block if the system entropy pool is not large enough

2.Enhanced Certificate Revocation-Checking API
Current java.security.cert API is all-or-nothing
– Failure to contact server is a fatal error
New interfaces
– CertPathChecker
– CertPathParameters
New command line debug option
– -Djava.security.debug=certpath

3.HTTP URL Permissions
New type of network permission
– Grant access in terms of URLs, rather than IP addresses
Current way to specify network permissions
– java.net.SocketPermission
– Not restricted to just HTTP
– Operates in terms of IP addresses only
New, higher level capabilities
– Support HTTP operations (POST, GET, etc)
– Build on limited doPrivileged feature

4.Small Items
Limited doPrivileged
– Execute Lambda expression with privileges enabled
NSA Suite B cryptographic algorithms – Conform to standards to meet U.S. government, banking requirements
AEAD CipherSuite support – Conform to standards to meet U.S. government, banking requirements
SHA-224 message digests
– Required due to known flaw in SHA-1
Leverage CPU instructions for AES cryptography
– Improve encryption/decryption performance

5.Small Changes
Microsoft Services For UNIX (MS-SFU) Kerberos 5 extensions
– Enhanced Microsoft interoperability
TLS Server Name Indication (SNI) extension
– More flexible secure virtual hosting, virtual-machine infrastructure
PKCS#11 crypto provider for 64-bit Windows
– Allow use of widely available native libraries
Stronger algorithms for password-based encryption
– Researchers and hackers move on
Overhaul JKS-JCEKS-PKCS12 keystores
– Simplify interacting with Java SE keystores for cryptographic applications

E)Change Virtual Machine:

1.Nashorn JavaScript Engine
Lightweight, high-performance JavaScript engine
– Integrated into JRE
Use existing javax.script API
ECMAScript-262 Edition 5.1 language specification compliance
New command-line tool, jjs to run JavaScript
Internationalised error messages and documentation

2.Retire Rarely-Used GC Combinations
Rarely used
– DefNew + CMS
– ParNew + SerialOld
– Incremental CMS
Large testing effort for little return
Will generate deprecated option messages
– Won’t disappear just yet

3.Remove The Permanent Generation|Permanently
No more need to tune the size of it
Current objects moved to Java heap or native memory
– Interned strings
– Class metadata
– Class static variables
Part of the HotSpot, JRockit convergence

4.Other Things
Reduce class metadata footprint
– Use techniques from CVM of Java ME CDC
Reduce cache contention on specified fields
– Pad variables to avoid sharing cache lines
Small VM – libjvm.so <3MB by compiling for size over speed

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