Resource Optimization with Java SE 7

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The typical Java application manipulates several types of resources such as files, streams, sockets, and database connections. Such resource optimization must be handled with great care, because they acquire system resources for their operations. Thus, you need to ensure that they get freed even in case of errors. Indeed, incorrect resource management is a common source of failures in production applications, with the usual pitfalls being database connections and file descriptors remaining opened after an exception has occurred somewhere else in the code. This leads to application servers being frequently restarted when resource exhaustion occurs, because operating systems and server applications generally have an upper-bound limit for resources.

Resource Optimization with Java SE 7 shows correct well documented practices for the management of resources and exceptions. For any resource that was successfully initialized, a corresponding invocation to its close() method is required. This requires disciplined usage of try/catch/finally blocks to ensure that any execution path from a resource opening eventually reaches a call to a method that closes it. Static analysis tools, such as FindBugs, are of great help in identifying such type of errors. Yet often, both inexperienced and experienced developers get resource management code wrong, resulting at best in resource leaks.

However, it should be acknowledged that writing correct code for resources requires lots of boilerplate code in the form of nested try/catch/finally blocks, as we will see. Writing such code correctly quickly becomes a problem of its own. Meanwhile, other programming languages, such as Python and Ruby, have been offering language-level facilities known as automatic resource management to address this issue.

This article presents the Java Platform, Standard Edition (Java SE) 7 answer to the automatic resource management problem in the form of a new language construct proposed as part of Project Coin and called the try-with-resources statement. As we will see, it goes well beyond being just more syntactic sugar, like the enhanced for loops of Java SE 5. Indeed, exceptions can mask each other, making the identification of root problem causes sometimes hard to debug.

The article starts with an overview of resource and exception management before introducing the essentials of the try-with-resources statement from the Java developer point of view. It then shows how a class can be made ready for supporting such statements. Next, it discusses the issues of exception masking and how Java SE 7 evolved to fix them. Finally, it demystifies the syntactic sugar behind the language extension and provides a discussion and a conclusion.

Managing Resources and Exceptions

Let us get started with the following code excerpt:

At first sight, this method does not do much harm: It opens a file called data and then writes an integer and a string. The design of the stream classes in the package makes it possible for them to be combined using the decorator design-pattern.

As an example, we could have added an output stream for compressing data between a DataOutputStream and a FileOutputStream. When a stream is closed, it also closes the stream that it is decorating. Going back again to the example, when close() is called on the instance of DataOutputStream, so is the close() method from FileOutputStream.

There is, however, a serious issue in this method regarding the call to the close() method. Suppose an exception is thrown while writing the integer or the string because the underlying file system is full. Then, the close() method has no chance of being called.

This is not so much of an issue regarding DataOutputStream, because it operates only on instances of OutputStream to encode and write primitive data types into arrays of bytes. The real problem is on FileOutputStream, because it internally holds an operating system resource on a file descriptor that is freed only when close() is called. Hence, this method leaks resources.

This issue is mostly harmless in the case of short-lived programs, but it could lead to an entire server having to be restarted in the case of long-running applications, as found on Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) application servers, because the maximum number of open file descriptors permitted by the underlying operating system would be reached.

A correct way to rewrite the previous method would be as follows:

In every case, a thrown exception is propagated to the invoker of the method, but the finally block after the try block ensures that the close() method of the data output stream is called. In turn, this ensures that the underlying file output stream’s close() method is called too, resulting in the proper freeing of the operating system resources associated with a file.

try-with-resources Statement for the Impatient

There is, admittedly, a lot of boilerplate code in the previous example to ensure that resources are properly closed. With more streams, network sockets, or Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) connections, such boilerplate code makes it harder to read the business logic of a method. Even worse, it requires discipline from developers because it is easy to write the error handling and resource closing logic incorrectly.

In the meantime, other programming languages have introduced constructs for simplifying the handling of such cases. As an example, the previous method would be written as follows in Ruby:

And it would be written like this in Python:

In Ruby, the method takes a block of code to be executed, and ensures that the opened file is closed even if the block’s execution emits an exception.

The Python example is similar in that the special with statement takes an object that has a close method and a code block. Again, it ensures proper resource closing no matter if an exception is thrown or not.

Java SE 7 introduced a similar language construct as part of Project Coin. The example can be rewritten as follows:

The new construct extends try blocks to declare resources much like is the case with for loops. Any resource declared within a try block opening will be closed. Hence, the new construct shields you from having to pair try blocks with corresponding finally blocks that are dedicated to proper resource management. A semicolon separates each resource, for example:

Finally, such a try-with-resources statement may be followed by catch and finally blocks, just like regular try statements prior to Java SE 7.

Making an Auto-Closeable Class

As you probably guessed already, a try-with-resources statement cannot manage every class. A new interface called java.lang.AutoCloseable was introduced in Java SE 7. All it does is provide a void method named close() that may throw a checked exception (java.lang.Exception). Any class willing to participate in try-with-resources statements should implement this interface. It is strongly recommended that implementing classes and sub-interfaces declare a more precise exception type than java.lang.Exception, or, even better, declare no exception type at all if invoking close() should not fail.

Such close() methods have been retro-fitted into many classes of the standard Java SE run-time environment , including the, java.nio, javax.crypto,,, java.util.jar,, and java.sql packages. The major advantage of this approach is that existing code continues working just as before, while new code can easily take advantage of the try-with-resources statement.

Let us consider the following example:

The AutoClose class implements AutoCloseable and can thus be used as part of a try-with-resources statement, as illustrated in the main() method. Intentionally, we added some console output, and we throw exceptions both in the work() and close() methods of the class. Running the program yields the following output:

The output clearly proves that close() was indeed called before entering the catch block that should handle the exception. Yet, the Java developer discovering Java SE 7 might be surprised to see the exception stack trace line prefixed by “Suppressed: (…)”. It matches the exception thrown by the close() method, but you could never encounter such a form of stack trace prior to Java SE 7. What is going on here?

Exception Masking

To understand what happened in the previous example, let us get rid of the try-with-resources statement for a moment, and manually rewrite a correct resource management code. First, let us extract the following static method to be invoked by the main method:

Then, let us transform the main method accordingly:

Now, running the program gives the following output:

This code, which is idiomatic for proper resource management prior to Java SE 7, shows the problem of one exception being masked by another exception. Indeed, the client code to the runWithMasking() method is notified of an exception being thrown in the close() method, while in reality, a first exception had been thrown in the work() method.

However, only one exception can be thrown at a time, meaning that even correct code misses information while handling exceptions. Developers lose significant time debugging when a main exception is masked by a further exception being thrown while closing a resource. The astute reader could question such claims, because exceptions can be nested, after all. However, nested exceptions should be used for causality between one exception and another, typically to wrap a low-level exception within one aimed at higher layers of an application architecture. A good example is a JDBC driver wrapping a socket exception into a JDBC connection. Here, there are really two exceptions: one in work() and one in close(), and there is absolutely no causality relationship between them.

Supporting “Suppressed” Exceptions
Because exception masking is such an important problem in practice, Java SE 7 extends exceptions so that “suppressed” exceptions can be attached to primary exceptions. What we called a “masked” exception previously is actually an exception to be suppressed and attached to a primary exception.

The extensions to java.lang.Throwable are as follows:

public final void addSuppressed(Throwable exception) appends a suppressed exception to another one, so as to avoid exception masking.
public final Throwable[] getSuppressed() gets the suppressed exceptions that were added to an exception.
These extensions were introduced especially for supporting the try-with-resources statement and fixing exception-masking problems.

Going back to the previous runWithMasking() method, let us rewrite it with support for suppressed exceptions in mind:

Clearly, this represents a fair amount of code just for properly handling two exception-throwing methods of a single auto-closeable class! A local variable is used to capture the primary exception, that is, the one that the work() method may throw. If such an exception is thrown, it is captured and then thrown again immediately, so as to delegate the remaining work to the finally block.

Entering the finally block, the reference to the primary exception is checked. If an exception was thrown, the exception that the close() method may throw would be attached to it as a suppressed exception. Otherwise, the close() method is invoked, and if it throws an exception, then it actually is the primary exception, thus not masking another one.

Let us run the modified program with this new method:

As you can see, we manually reproduced the behavior of the try-with-resources statement earlier.

Syntactic Sugar Demystified

The runWithoutMasking() method that we implemented reproduces the behavior of the try-with-resources statement by properly closing resources and preventing exception masking. In reality, the Java compiler expands to code that matches the code of runWithoutMasking() for the following method, which uses a try-with-resources statement:

This can be checked through decompilation. While we could compare the byte code using javap, which is part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) binary tools, let us use a byte code-to-Java source code decompiler instead. The code of runInARM() is extracted as follows by the JD-GUI tool (after reformatting):

As we can see, the code that we manually wrote shares the same resource management canvas as the one inferred by the compiler on a try-with-resources statement. It should also be noted that the compiler handles the case of possibly null resource references to avoid null pointer exceptions when invoking close() on a null reference by adding extra if statements in finally blocks to check whether a given resource is null or not. We did not do that in our manual implementation, because there is no chance that the resource is null. The compiler systematically generates such code, however.

Let us now consider another example, this time involving three resources:

This method manipulates three resources to compress a file: one stream for reading, one stream for compressing, and one stream to an output file. This code is correct from a resource management perspective. Prior to Java SE 7, you would have had to write code similar to the code we obtained by decompiling the class containing this method, again with JD-GUI:

The benefits of the try-with-resources statement in Java SE 7 are self-explanatory for such an example: You have less code to write, the code is easier to read, and, last but not least, the code does not leak resources!


The definition of the close() method in the java.lang.AutoCloseable interface mentions that a java.lang.Exception may be thrown. However, the previous AutoClose example declared this method without mentioning any checked exception, which we did on purpose, partly to illustrate exceptions masking.

The specification for auto-closeable classes suggests that throwing java.lang.Exception be avoided in favor of specific checked exceptions, and that no checked exception be mentioned if the close() method is not expected to fail. It also advises not to declare any exception that should not be suppressed, with java.lang.InterruptedException being the best example. Indeed, suppressing it and attaching it to another exception is likely to cause the thread interruption event to be ignored and put an application in an inconsistent state.

A legitimate question regarding the use of the try-with-resources statement is that of performance impact compared to manually crafting proper resource management code. There is actually no performance impact, because the compiler infers the minimal correct code for properly handling all exceptions, as we illustrated through decompilation in the previous examples.

At the end of the day, try-with-resources statements are syntactic sugar just like the enhanced for loops introduced in Java SE 5 for expanding loops over iterators.

That being said, we can limit the complexity of a try-with-resources statement expansion. Generally, the more a try block declares resources, the more complex the generated code will be. The previous compress() method could be rewritten with just two resources instead of three, generating less exception-handling blocks:

As was the case before the advent of the try-with-resources statement in Java, a general rule of thumb is that developers should always understand the trade-offs when chaining resources instantiations. To do that, the best approach is to read the specifications of each resource’s close() method to understand the semantics and implications.

Going back to the writingWithARM() example at the beginning of the article, chaining is safe because DataOutputStream is unlikely to throw an exception on close(). However, this is not the case with the last example, because GZIPOutputStream attempts to write the remaining compressed data as part of the close() method. If an exception was thrown earlier while writing the compressed file, the close() method in GZIPOutputStream is more than likely to throw a further exception as well, resulting in the close() method in FileOutputStream not being called and leaking a file descriptor resource.

A good practice is to have a separate declaration in a try-with-resources statement for each resource that holds critical system resources, such as a file descriptor, a socket, or a JDBC connection where you must make sure that a close() method is eventually called. Otherwise, provided that the related resources APIs permit this, chaining allocations is not just a convenience: It also yields more compact code while preventing resource leaks.

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